Zoological Studies

Vol. 59, 2020

(update: 2020.07.10; 08.05)

Special Issue: Fossil and Modern Clam Shrimp (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata, Laevicaudata)

Phylogeny and Biogeography of Spinicaudata (Crustacea: Branchiopoda)

Martin Schwentner1,2,*, Nicolas Rabet3, Stefan Richter4, Gonzalo Giribet5, Sameer Padhye6, Jean-François Cart7, Céline Bonillo3, and D. Christopher Rogers8


1Center of Natural History, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. *Correspondence: E-mail: martin.schwentner@nhm-wien.ac.at (Schwentner)
2Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
3Sorbonne Université, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Biologie des organismes et écosystèmes aquatiques (BOREA), CNRS, IRD, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, CP26 75231, 43 rue Cuvier Paris Cedex 05, France. E-mail: nicolas.rabet@mnhn.fr (Rabet), celine.bonillo@mnhn.fr (Bonillo)
4Allgemeine und Spezielle Zoologie, Universität Rostock, Rostock, Germany. E-mail: stefan.richter@uni-rostock.de (Richter)
5Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. E-mail: ggiribet@g.harvard.edu (Giribet)
6Systematics, Ecology & Conservation Lab, Zoo Outreach Organization, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: sameer.m.padhye@gmail.com
715 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 10400 Nogent-sur-Seine, France. Email: jfcart1@gmail.com (Cart)
8Kansas Biological Survey, and The Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Higuchi Hall, 2101 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047-3759, USA. E-mail: Branchiopod@gmail.com (Rogers)

(Received 30 October 2019 / Accepted 9 March 2020)
Special issue (articles 32-46) communicated by Thomas A. Hegna and D. Christopher Rogers

Spinicaudata (spiny clam shrimp) is a taxon of Branchiopods occurring since the Devonian and today it occurs nearly globally in temporary water bodies. We present the most species-rich phylogenetic analyses of this taxon based on four molecular loci: COI, 16S rRNA, EF1α and 28S rRNA. Our results support previous findings that Cyzicidae sensu lato is paraphyletic. To render Cyzicidae monophyletic we establish a fourth extant spinicaudatan family to accommodate Eocyzicus. Within Cyzicidae, none of the genera Cyzicus, Caenestheria or Caenestheriella are monophyletic, and the morphological characters used to define these genera (condyle length and rostrum shape) are not associated with well-delimited clades within Cyzicidae. There is insufficient resolution to elucidate the relationships within Leptestheriidae. However, there is sufficient evidence to show that the leptestheriid genera Eoleptestheria and Leptestheria are non-monophyletic, and there is no support for the genus Leptestheriella. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the wide geographic distribution of many spinicaudatan taxa across multiple continents is largely based on vicariance associated with the break-up of Pangea and Gondwana. Trans-oceanic dispersal has occurred in some taxa (e.g., Eulimnadia and within Leptestheriidae) but has been relatively rare. Our results highlight the need to revise the taxonomy of Cyzicidae and Leptestheriidae and provide evidence that the global spinicaudatan diversity may be underestimated due to the presence of numerous cryptic species. We establish Eocyzicidae fam. nov. to accommodate the genus Eocyzicus. Consequently, Cyzicidae comprises only two genera – Cyzicus and Ozestheria. Ozestheria occurs also in Africa and Asia and Ozestheria pilosa new comb. is assigned to this genus.

Key words: Clam shrimp, Caenestheria, Caenestheriella, Eocyzicidae, Gondwana, Vicariance.

Citation: Schwentner M, Rabet N, Richter S, Giribet G, Padhye S, Cart J, Bonillo C, Rogers DC. 2020. Phylogeny and biogeography of Spinicaudata (Crustacea: Branchiopoda). Zool Stud 59:44. doi:10.6620/ZS.2020.59-44.

Supplementary Materials: Fig. S1 | Fig. S2 | Fig. S3 | Fig. S4 | Fig. S5 | Fig. S6 | Fig. S7 | Fig. S8 |
                                                 Fig. S9 | Fig. S10 | Fig. S11 | Fig. S12 | Fig. S13 | Fig. S14 | Table S1