Vol. 61, 2022
Biogeography and Ecological
Differentiation of Pseudasphondylia gall
midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Distributed in Taiwan and Japan, with
Description of a New Species P.
kiwiphila sp. nov. and the Southernmost Record of P. elaeocarpi
Sheng-Feng Lin1, Makoto Tokuda2,
Gene-Sheng Tung3, Liang-Yu Pan3, Wanggyu Kim4, Junichi Yukawa5, and Man-Miao Yang1,*
of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
*Correspondence: E-mail: email@example.com (Yang).
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Lin)
2Department of Biological Resource Science, Faculty of
Agriculture, Saga University, Japan. E-mail: email@example.com
3Division of Botanical Garden, Taiwan Forestry
Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Tung);
4Animal Resources Division, National Institute of
Biological Resources, Incheon, Republic of Korea. E-mail:
5Entomological Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture,
Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. E-mail: email@example.com
Received 19 March 2022 / Accepted 13
Communicated by Jen-Pan Huang
Pseudasphondylia species (Diptera:
Cecidomyiidae) inducing fruit galls on Actinidia rufa (Siebold &
Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. and finger-like leaf galls on Elaeocarpus sylvestris
(Lour.) Poir. are known to occur in Taiwan, but their taxonomic
positions were undetermined. Based on gall morphology and host plants,
they were supposed to be the same or allied species of known Japanese
congeners, i.e., P. matatabi Yuasa & Kumazawa
inducing flower-bud galls on Actinidia
polygama (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim and P. elaeocarpi Tokuda & Yukawa
inducing finger-like leaf galls on E.
respectively. Species identifications of these Taiwanese species
provide us an opportunity to study biogeographical aspects and
transition of ecological features in these Pseudasphondylia
species distributed in East Asian Arc. Morphological comparisons and
species delimitation by molecular analysis indicated that the
cecidomyiid on the fruit of A. rufa
is distinct from P. matatabi and thus it is described as a species new
to science, P. kiwiphila sp.
nov. Lin, Tokuda, & Yang. The leaf galler on E. sylvestris was identical to P. elaeocarpi, whose southernmost
distribution range extended to Taiwan, a new record of its
phylogenetic tree (Bayesian inference and IQ tree) of Pseudasphondylia
suggested that leaf galling habitat and univoltine life history are
ancestral, whereas fruit or flower-bud galling and multivoltine life
history are derived. In addition, the monophyletic Actinidia-associated
species lineage is sistered to the clade including the remaining
Japanese fruit and flower-bud gallers, suggesting that Pseudasphondylia has colonized on
the host genus Actinidia once
and later speciated on different plant species of the host genus. As a
biogeographical aspect of P.
elaeocarpi, 2.7% of the COI
distance between Japanese and Taiwanese individuals indicates that they
have diverged around 1.2 mya, which corresponds to the last but second
separation of Taiwan and Japan in the Pleistocene. As for Actinidia-associated Pseudasphondylia
species, the two valid species are allopatric and have distinct areas
of origin, suggesting they may have speciated allopatrically.
Nevertheless, there is still the possibility of ecological speciation
due to the following reasons: (1) host species (and varieties) and
unidentified congener of Actinidia-associated
are occurring China, revealing potential occurrence of these gall
midges; (2) the divergence time (2.2–2.9 mya) of the two known species
corresponds to the late Pliocene to Pleistocene when in China, Taiwan,
and Japan were parts of the East Asian continent. In the period, their
host species are sympatric in southeast China; and (3) the host of two
named Actinidia-associated Pseudasphondylia
species respectively belong to different plant groups with distinct
fruit features. These presume that the speciation might have been
caused via sympatric host shift.
Key words: Actinidia, Biogeography, Elaeocarpus sylvestris, Kiwi fruit
Citation: Lin SF, Tokuda M, Tung GS, Pan
LY, Kim W, Yukawa J, Yang MM. 2022. Biogeography and ecological
differentiation of Pseudasphondylia
gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) distributed in Taiwan and Japan,
with description of a new species P.
kiwiphila sp. nov. and the southernmost record of P. elaeocarpi. Zool Stud 61:39.