Vol. 45 No. 4, 2006
Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipids on Blood Parameters and
Superoxide Anion Production in the Grouper, Epinephelus coioides
Cheng, Chia-Yung Chen, Chyng-Hwa Liou, and Ching-Fong Chang*
of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan 202
Cheng, Chia-Yung Chen, Chyng-Hwa Liou, and Ching-Fong Chang (2006) The
objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dietary
lipid and protein levels on blood parameters, body composition, body
indices, and the production of superoxide anions in the grouper,
Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae: Epinephelinae). The effects of acute
cold stress on the production of superoxide anions were also studied. A
feeding trial was conducted for 12 wk on 200 juvenile groupers (10 g)
per cage placed in a 2-ton tank with a recirculation system. In total,
4 dietary treatments with a 2 x 2 factorial array were conducted.
Treatments had either low (L, 31%) or moderate (M, 47%) crude protein
(P) combined with either moderate (M, 10%) or high (H, 18%) fat (F).
Fish were handfed to apparent satiation. Consumption of the high-fat,
low-protein (LP-HF) diet resulted in abnormally increased levels of
plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, lower production of
superoxide anions, and poor growth performance, which is consistent
with higher body lipid content, viscerosomatic index, intraperitoneal
fat, and hepatosomatic index of the fish. However, consumption of the
moderate-protein, high-fat (MPHF) diet decreased the impaired
metabolism and increased the production of superoxide anions in the
grouper. Grouper fed the high-fat (LP-HF and MP-HF) diets produced
significantly higher levels of superoxide anions after acute cold shock
(stress) compared to the control fish. In summary, our data suggest
that high dietary fat results in increased fat deposition, and plasma
triglyceride and glucose levels in grouper. High dietary lipid enhanced
the immune response of grouper after acute cold shock.
Key words: Protein,
Fat, Growth, Superoxide anion, Grouper.
*Correspondence: Tel: 886-2-24622192 ext. 5209, 5210.