Vol. 47 No. 4, 2008
Phylogeography of the Endangered Species, Sinogastromyzon puliensis
(Cypriniformes: Balitoridae), in Southwestern Taiwan Based on mtDNA
Liao1,2, Tzi-Yuan Wang2,3, Hung-Du Lin4,
Shih-Chieh Shen5, and Chyng-Shyan Tzeng2,*
of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-104 05
2Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua
University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
3The Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei
4Department of Life Sciences, Cheng-Kung University,
Tainan 701, Taiwan
5Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University,
106 Taipei, Taiwan
Liao, Tzi-Yuan Wang, Hung-Du Lin, Shih-Chieh Shen, and Chyng-Shyan
Tzeng (2008) The initial colonization by Sinogastromyzon
puliensis is hypothesized to be in southern Taiwan, followed by its
northward dispersal. To unravel its phylogeographical history,
the mitochondrial control regions of S.
puliensis were sequenced. Hierarchical analysis of
molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that more genetic variation resided
among populations (ΦST = 0.879, p = 0) than within populations (ΦSC
= 0.871, p = 0), as supported
by significant pairwise FST
values showing high genetic differentiation and rare migrations among
populations. High levels of genetic differentiation can be
explained by either long-term isolation among populations or a
consequence due to the founder effect. Both a Neighbor-joining
(NJ) tree and maximum parsimony (MP) analysis divided 4 populations of S. puliensis into 3 major
groups. Group I is composed of populations of the Wu and Choshui
Rivers, in which reciprocal monophyly was not supported. The
Tzengwen River, comprising group II, is sister to group I. Group
III is the basal clade and consisted of only the Kaoping River in a
phylogram rooted by S. wui.
According to the topological pattern and character of haplotypes
without a 16-bp deletion, the Kaoping River is proposed to be the first
habitat colonized by the ancestor of S.
puliensis, after which this fish dispersed northwards.
This dispersal pattern is concordant with the previously proposed
Key words: Zoogeography,
Dispersal, Glaciation, Founder effect, mtDNA D-loop.
*Correspondence: Tel and Fax: 886-3-5742765.