Zoological Studies

Vol. 53, 2014

A new genus and eight new species of Amazonian cosmetines (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cosmetidae)

Adriano B Kury* and Carla ML Barros

Departamento de Invertebrados, Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20.940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Background: The taxonomy of family Cosmetidae is in as unsatisfactory state. The genera have been historically erected based on trivial features and do not represent natural groups. A new taxon is here for the first timerecognized and named.
The new genus Taito is described to include eight new species - Taito galaga, Taito honda, Taito kakera, Taito kawaiikei, Taito medinae, Taito osmari, Taito rorschachi, and Taito spaceinvaders (type species) - plus six recombined from Eucynortella, Cynorta, and Cynortula - Taito insperatus (Soares 1970), Taito juruensis (Mello-Leitão 1923), Taito litteratus (Soares 1970), Taito oblongatus (Roewer 1928), Taito serriperna (Mello-Leitão 1932), Taito unapunctatus (Goodnight and Goodnight 1943). This totals 14 South American species, distributed in the Upper Amazon Basin. The combined distribution of species of Taito is Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, and Rondônia states), Colombia (Amazonas and Meta department), Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe province), and Peru (Amazonas department). Cynortula serriperna Mello-Leitão 1932 is revalidated from the synonymy of Eucynortella juruensis Mello-Leitão 1923 (currently Cynorta juruensis), and type localities of both species are interpreted to be in Acre state, Brazil instead of Amazonas. The hitherto unknown male of Eucynortella juruensis is described. Three new structures are characterized and named: (1) a pattern of H-shaped or easel-shaped white markings on dorsal scutum - the equuleus, (2) a dorso-basal cluster of coarse granules on male coxa IV - the groin warts, and (3) a special type of dorsal scutum coda - the free tergite zero.
Conclusions: A hitherto undetected group of Cosmetidae is recognized and formally described, along with some morphological characters which are proven useful for systematics of the family Cosmetidae.

Key words: Neotropics; Harvestmen; Rainforest; Variation; Genital morphology.

*Correspondence: E-mail: adrianok@gmail.com