Vol. 53, 2014
DNA barcoding of Palaearctic Ulidiidae (Diptera:
Tephritoidea): morphology, DNA evolution, and Markov codon models
V Galinskaya1*†, Anton Suvorov2*†,
Mikhail V Okun3 and Anatole I Shatalkin4
of Entomology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory,
GSP-1, korp. 12, Moscow 119991, Russia
2Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, 4102
Life Sciences Building, Provo, UT 84602, USA
3Center for Integrative Bioinformatics Vienna (CIBIV),
Max F. Perutz Laboratories (MFPL), Campus Vienna Biocenter 5 (VBC5),
Vienna 1030, Austria
4Zoological Museum of Lomonosov Moscow State
University, Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str. 6, Moscow 125009, Russia
Background: Here, for the first
time, we report a barcoding survey of the dipterian family Ulidiidae
(with two subfamilies Ulidiinae and Otitinae) coupled with morphology.
To date, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the family that
relies on molecular data. To reconstruct probable higher-level
phylogenetic relationships between the genera of Ulidiidae, we
exploited maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and additionally,
we utilized a modern Markov model of codon substitutions for
protein-coding genes coupled with the maximum likelihood approach to
establish more realistic evolutionary scenarios connecting Ulidiinae
Results: Though we found morphological
synapomorphic characters that clearly distinguish two groups of genera,
formerly relating to two subfamilies, the monophyly of the clade
Otitinae was not firmly supported by molecular phylogenetic
reconstructions. The subfamily Ulidiinae was recovered as the basal
likely paraphyletic group with high reliability. Overall, our results
suggest the inclusion of the genera Homalocephala and Seioptera into
the tribe Seiopterini (Otitinae). Three genera of Ulidiinae (Physiphora, Timia, Ulidia), eight genera of Otitinae (Ceroxys, Herina, Melieria, Myennis, Otites, Pseudotephritis, Seioptera, Tetanops), and the genus of Homalocephala with still
unconfirmed systematic status were included in the analysis.
Conclusions: On all phylogenetic
trees obtained in our survey, there is a clear tendency of clustering
at the genus level with separation of (Physiphora
+ (Timia + Ulidia)) (Ulidiinae) and (Otitinae
+ Homalocephala). The genus
Homalocephala takes basal or subbasal position relatively to Otitinae.
Phylogenetic reconstruction based on Markov models of codon evolution
provided a good resolution for our limited dataset.
Key words: Barcoding; Diptera; DNA evolution;
Markov codon models; Palaearctic; Ulidiidae.
*Correspondence: E-mail: email@example.com;
firstname.lastname@example.org †Equal contributors.