Vol. 60, 2021
Dietary Habits of Free-ranging Banded Langur (Presbytis femoralis) in a Secondary-human Modified Forest in Johor, Malaysia
Mohd Faudzir Najmuddin1,2, Hidayah Haris1,2, Noratiqah Norazlimi2, Farhani Ruslin3, Ikki Matsuda4,5,6,7, Badrul Munir Md-Zain3, and Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff1,2,*
Integrated Group (OIG), Institute for Integrated Engineering (I2E),
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Johor.
*Correspondence: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Abdul-Latiff).
E-mail: email@example.com (Najmuddin); firstname.lastname@example.org (Haris)
of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
(Pagoh Campus), Muar 84600, Johor, Malaysia, Johor. E-mail:
3Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology,
Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: email@example.com (Ruslin);
4Chubu University Academy of Emerging Sciences, 1200,
Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai-shi, Aichi 487-8501, Japan. E-mail:
5Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University, Japan.
6Japan Monkey Centre, Japan.
7Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia.
Received 16 March 2021 / Accepted 9 August 2021
Communicated by Benny K.K. Chan
Banded langurs, Presbytis femoralis, are distributed in southern Peninsular Malaysia, i.e., Johor and its borders including Singapore. It has been estimated that there are only < 250 mature individuals of P. femoralis in Malaysia and Singapore, and it is currently assessed as Critically Endangered. The dietary information of P. femoralis
and even other closely related species has rarely been reported. This
study, therefore, aimed to describe their dietary habits and discuss
interaction between their feeding behaviour and its surrounding. This
study was conducted from February to November 2018, with 15 sampling
days each month. We collected a total of 186 sighting hours, using a
scan sampling method with 10-min intervals, on a five-langur focal
group. We have identified 29 species with 47 items consumed by the
banded langur, mostly young leaves (51 %) followed by fruits (45 %),
and flowers (3.8 %). The study group spent slightly more time consuming
non-cultivated plants but relied on cultivated plants for the fruits.
Over 75% of fruit feeding involved consuming cultivar plants; in most
cases (73%), they ate only the pulp, not the seeds. Since the
cultivated plants was planted in human settlement, there is an urgent
need to implement conservation measures to untangle the human-langur
conflicts for instance, reforestation of a buffer region using
non-cultivated plants. There is a potential for building upon our new
findings with more detailed investigations, such as more extensive
ecological factors influencing the dietary adaptation which would be
necessary to support conservation efforts and management decisions of
Key words: Primate, Pest, Cultivated plant, Human-primate conflict, Feeding ecology.
Najmuddin MF, Haris H, Norazlimi N, Ruslin F, Matsuda I, Md-Zain BM,
Abdul-Latiff MAB. 2021. Dietary habits of free-ranging banded langur (Presbytis femoralis) in a secondary-human modified forest in Johor, Malaysia. Zool Stud 60:67.