Vol. 60, 2021
Taxonomy, Evolutionary and
Dispersal Events of Pig-Tailed Macaque, Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus,
1766) in Southeast Asia with Description of a New Subspecies, Macaca
nemestrina perakensis in Malaysia
Muhammad Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff1,2,3 and Badrul Munir Md-Zain1,*
of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and
Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor,
Malaysia. *Correspondence: E-mail: email@example.com (Md-Zain)
2Oasis Integrated Group (OIG), Institute for
Integrated Engineering (IČE), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,
86400 Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Pagoh Campus), 84600, Muar, Johor, Malaysia.
Received 23 June 2020 / Accepted 6 June 2021
Communicated by Teng-Chiu Lin
The pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina,
which are distributed in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Borneo, and
Sumatra has been the subject of unstable and changing taxonomic entity
in the M. nemestrina group.
This species is involved with a human-macaque conflict in Malaysia and
at the same time played important role in ethnozoological culture of
Malaysian. Even so, comprehensive phylogenetic, population genetic, and
biogeographical analysis of M. nemestrina
in Malaysia are non-existent after decades of intensive research on the
genus itself. Thus, we conducted the first comprehensive genetic study
of M. nemestrina in Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo, based on
three mitochondrial loci, Cytochrome b (567 bp), D-loop (398 bp), and COI
(577 bp) from 27 individual representing Malaysia, adding further 26
sequences of Southeast Asian macaques from Genbank. Comparative
biogeographical analysis in this study supports the positions of M. nemestrina in M. nemestrina
groups as opposed to silenus or Sulawesi groups. Results from this
study also indicate that Bornean populations are the first extant
lineages to separate as compared to other examined lineages of M. nemestrina, M. leonina, M. pagensis, and M. siberu in Southeast Asia. Molecular clock analysis suggested that M. nemestrina
arrived in Malay Peninsula about 0.32 million years ago (MYA). Our
results indicate that the population of pig-tailed macaque from Perak
(west Peninsular Malaysia) differs genetically based on all
phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. Morphologically, Perak’s
pig-tailed macaque shows brighter coloration as compared to M. n. nemestrina. Thus, we proposed a new subspecies for Perak’s pig-tailed macaque as Macaca nemestrina perakensis
distributed in state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. This research
contributes to resolve the taxonomic position and population genetics
of pig-tailed macaque in Malaysia, which contribute directly to
conservation and management of the species in Malaysia.
Key words: Pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina, Cercopithecinae, Phylogeography, Taxonomy.
Citation: Abdul-Latiff MAB, Md-Zain BM. 2021. Taxonomy, evolutionary and dispersal events of pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) in southeast asia with description of a new subspecies, Macaca nemestrina perakensis in Malaysia. Zool Stud 60:50.