Vol. 60, 2021
(update: 2021.06.18; 10.08)
Taxonomy, Evolutionary and
Dispersal Events of Pig-Tailed Macaque, Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus,
1766) in Southeast Asia with Description of a New Subspecies, Macaca
Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff1,2,3
and Badrul Munir Md-Zain1,*
of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and
Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor,
Malaysia. *Correspondence: E-mail: email@example.com (Md-Zain)
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com (Abdul-Latiff)
2Oasis Integrated Group (OIG), Institute for
Integrated Engineering (IČE), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,
86400 Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Pagoh Campus), 84600, Muar, Johor,
Received 23 June 2020 / Accepted 6
Communicated by Teng-Chiu Lin
The pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina, which is
distributed in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Borneo, and Sumatra, has
been the subject of unstable and changing taxonomic entity in the M. nemestrina group. This species
is involved with a human-macaque conflict in Malaysia and at the same
time played an important role in the ethnozoological culture of
Malaysian. Even so, comprehensive phylogenetic, population genetics and
biogeographical analysis of M.
nemestrina in Malaysia are non-existent after decades of
intensive research on the genus itself. Thus, we conducted the first
comprehensive genetic study of M.
nemestrina in Malaysia, based on three mitochondrial
loci—Cytochrome b (567 bp),
D-loop (398 bp), and COI (577
bp)—from 27 individuals representing Malaysia, plus an additional 26
sequences of Southeast Asian macaques from Genbank. Comparative
biogeographical analysis in this study supports the positions of M. nemestrina in M. nemestrina groups as opposed to
the silenus or Sulawesi
groups. Results from this study also indicate that Bornean populations
are the first extant lineages to separate from the other examined
lineages of M. nemestrina, M. leonina, M. pagensis, and M. siberu in Southeast Asia.
Molecular clock analysis suggested that M. nemestrina arrived in the Malay
Peninsula about 0.32 million years ago (MYA). Our results indicate that
the population of pig-tailed macaque from Perak (west Peninsular
Malaysia) differs genetically based on all phylogenetic and population
genetic analyses. Morphologically, Perak’s pig-tailed macaque shows
brighter coloration than M. n.
nemestrina. Thus, we proposed a new subspecies for Perak’s
pig-tailed macaque as Macaca
nemestrina perakensis distributed
in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. This research helps resolve
the taxonomic position and population genetics of pig-tailed macaque in
Malaysia, which contribute directly to conservation and management of
the species in Malaysia.
Key words: Pig-tailed macaque,
Cercopithecinae, Phylogeography, Taxonomy.
Citation: Abdul-Latiff MAB, Md-Zain BM.
2021. Taxonomy, evolutionary and dispersal events of pig-tailed
macaque, Macaca nemestrina
(Linnaeus, 1766) in southeast asia with description of a new
subspecies, Macaca nemestrina
perakensis in Malaysia.
Zool Stud 60:50.