Vol. 60, 2021
(update: 2021.08.18; 11.03)
Acoustic Properties of the
Otolith of the Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys
crocea (Perciformes: Sciaenidae)
Zhang1, Yi Tao1,*,
Yang-Liang Zhou1, Li-Guo
Tang1, Min Liu2,
and Xiao-Mei Xu1
Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information
Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Ocean and Earth
Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, China.
*Correspondence: E-mail: email@example.com (Tao).
E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org (Zhang); email@example.com
(Zhou); firstname.lastname@example.org (Tang); email@example.com (Xu).
Swire Marine Station, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen
University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. E-mails:
Received 11 March 2021 / Accepted 28
Communicated by Benny K.K. Chan
inner ears of fish contain three pairs of otoliths—lapilli, asterisci
and sagittae—which play important roles in hearing and balance.
acoustic properties and dynamic responses of fish otoliths are poorly
understood. The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys
like many species in the family Sciaenidae, is extremely sensitive to
sound. The present study used L.
crocea sagittae as the research
subject and examined the variation in shear stress on sagittae under
different acoustic stimuli. For the first time, the sound speed of the
sagitta was measured using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques, and the
acoustic impedance and natural frequency of the sagitta were
calculated. Larimichthys crocea
adults (20–22 cm standard length, n
= 10) had a sagitta density of 2781.5 ± 28.06 kg/m3,
sound speed of 4828–6000 m/s and acoustic impedance range of 13.4–16.7
MPa·s/m, approximately 9–11 times that of seawater (1.48 MPa·s/m). The
natural frequency of the sagitta was 76.4–95.5 kHz. The shape and
structural details of sagittae were reconstructed by 3D scanner and the
shear stress responses of sagittae under different acoustic stimulus
were investigated based on a finite element model. The simulation
results showed that the shear stress responses tended to increase and
then decrease in the range of sciaenid hearing frequency from 200 to
1300 Hz, peaking at 800 Hz. The shear stress responses varied with the
direction of acoustic stimulus and peaked when the incident direction
was perpendicular to the inner surface of the otolith. These results
provide important parameters that may be used to protect L. crocea from possible underwater
noise damage, particularly during their spawning aggregations and
Key words: Sciaenidae, Otolith, Acoustic
properties, Sound speed, Finite element modeling.
Citation: Zhang XH, Tao Y, Zhou YL, Tang
LG, Liu M, Xu XM. 2021. Acoustic properties of the otolith of the large
yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea
(Perciformes: Sciaenidae). Zool Stud 60:64.