Vol. 61, 2022
Foraging Strategy of
Black-faced Spoonbill During Breeding Period in Rice Fields of Korea
, Hyung-Kyu Nam2,§,
of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea;
Current address: Research Center for Endangered Species, National
Institute of Ecology, Yeongyang 36531, Republic of Korea. E-mail:
2National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon
22689, Republic of Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Nam)
3Research Center for Endangered Species, National
Institute of Ecology, Yeongyang 36531, Republic of Korea.
*Correspondences: E-mail: email@example.com (Kwon).
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Hwang)
4Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul
02447, Republic of Korea. *Correspondences: E-mail: email@example.com
§SYY and HKN contributed
equally to this work.
Received 23 September 2021 / Accepted 4 May 2022
Communicated by Chih-Ming Hung
fields are important habitats for a variety of water birds, and their
importance is increasing with the destruction of natural wetlands. This
study was conducted to understand the foraging strategy of the
black-faced spoonbill, an internationally endangered species, in rice
fields. To achieve this objective, the feeding success rate of
black-faced spoonbills in rice fields was analyzed considering the
species’ feeding behavior, environmental factors, and external factors.
The number of sweeps per minute and number of steps per minute were
evaluated as features of feeding behavior; rice field type, water
level, and rice height as environmental factors; and the size of a
flock and number of other species in the fields when black-faced
spoonbills were feeding as external factors. The feeding success rate
of the black-faced spoonbills increased as they were feeding while
moving at a fast pace in a rice field with a water level of 10 cm or
below, rice height of 15 cm, and without herons (competitor species).
These factors may be an effective strategy to increase the probability
of food acquisition by black-faced spoonbills in rice fields.
Therefore, to allow black-faced spoonbills during breeding season to
use the rice fields for feeding, it is necessary to maintain a water
level of 15 cm or less before transplanting rice. Moreover, the use
ofpesticides must be minimized to increase abundance of the food
resources in rice fields.
Key words: Black-faced
spoonbill, Rice field, Foraging strategy, Breeding season, Korean
Citation: Yoo S-Y, Nam H-K, Hwang J-K, Yoo
J-C, Kwon I-K. 2022. Foraging strategy of black-faced spoonbill during
breeding period in rice fields of Korea. Zool Stud 61:35. doi:10.6620/ZS.2022.61-35.
materials: Table S1丨Table S2