Zoological Studies

Vol. 61, 2022

(update: 2022.9.8)

Expressions of PP1 and PP4 During the Bombyx Embryonic Diapause Process

Shi-Hong Gu1,* and Pei-Ling Lin1,*

1Department of Biology, National Museum of Natural Science, 1 Kuan-Chien Road, Taichung, Taiwan 404. *Correspondence: E-mail: gu330@mail.nmns.edu.tw (Gu). Fax: 886-42-3232146.
E-mail: (Lin)

Received 23 March 2022 / Accepted 11 August 2022
Communicated by Pung-Pung Hwang

Reversible protein phosphorylation is accomplished by opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases. We previously demonstrated the regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP) type 2A (PP2A) and 2B (PP2B or calcineurin) during the embryonic diapause process of Bombyx mori. In the present study, we further examined the expressions of two other two PPs (PP1 and PP4) during embryonic stages. An immunoblot analysis showed that Bombyx eggs contained a 38-kDa PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1-C), a 38-kDa PP4 catalytic subunit (PP4-C), and a 120-kDa PP1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS), with each subunit undergoing differential changes between diapause and developing eggs during the embryonic process. In non-diapause eggs, eggs whose diapause initiation was prevented by HCl, and eggs in which diapause had been terminated by chilling of diapausing eggs at 5C for 70 days and then were transferred to 25C, protein levels of PP1-C and PP4-C remained at relatively high levels during the early embryonic stages, and then decreased during middle (for PP1-C) or later (for PP4-C) embryonic development. However, protein levels of PP1-C and PP4-C in diapause eggs remained at high levels during the first 8 days after oviposition. PNUTS protein levels showed inverse temporal changes, with increased levels being detected during the later embryonic stages of developing eggs. The direct determination of PP1 enzymatic activity showed higher activity in developing eggs compared to diapause eggs. Examination of temporal changes in mRNA expression levels of PP1-C and PP4-C showed no difference between HCl-treated and diapause eggs. These results indicated that differential protein levels of PP1-C/PNUTS and PP4-C, and increased enzymatic activity of PP1 were likely related to embryonic development of B. mori.

Key words: Bombyx mori, PP1, PP4, PNUTS, Phosphatase, Diapause, Gene expression.

Citation: Gu SH, Lin PL. 2022. Expressions of PP1 and PP4 during the Bombyx embryonic diapause process. Zool Stud 61:61.