Zoological Studies

Vol. 61, 2022

(update: 2022.10.29)

Oxyomus of Taiwan (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): Review of the Fauna, a New Species and its Larva Associated by DNA Barcoding

Bin-Hong Ho1, Fang-Shuo Hu2, and Martin Fikáček3,4,*

1Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. E-mail: binhongho0505@smail.nchu.edu.tw (Ho)
2Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. E-mail: fangshuo_hu@smail.nchu.edu.tw (Hu)

3Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Correspondence e-mail: mfikacek@gmail.com (Fikáček)
4Department of Entomology, National Museum, Cirkusová 1740, Praha 9, Czech Republic.

Received 22 May 2022 / Accepted 7 October 2022
Communicated by Shen-Horn Yen

The Taiwanese fauna of the dung beetle genus Oxyomus Dejean, 1833 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) is reviewed based on museum specimens and newly collected material. Four species, all endemic to Taiwan, are recognized, one of which is newly described here: O. alligator sp. nov. Remaining species are diagnosed, compared with similar relatives from outside of Taiwan, and their distribution is mapped. We show that Taiwanese Oxyomus species form three distinct morphological groups, resemble species from Japan, SE Asia and Malay Archipelago, respectively, indicating a possible composite origin of Taiwanese fauna. The species occur in submontane and montane forests at altitudes of 700–2550 m including the secondary Cryptomeria ones. Available data confirm their association with dung of various forest mammals (monkeys, muntjacs and serows), although the discovery of larvae in sifted forest leaf litter may indicate they can also develop in nutrient-rich substrate around the dung. The larva of O. alligator sp. nov. is described in detail, based on the larval specimens associated with adults by DNA barcodes. Larvae of Oxyomus alligator sp. nov. are similar to those of the European O. sylvestris (Scopoli, 1763), with important differences only found on maxilla and abdominal apex.

Key words: Aphodiinae, Dung beetles, Oxyomus, Taiwan, New species, Immature stages, DNA barcoding, Distribution, Endemism.

Citation: Ho BH, Hu FS, Fikáček M. 2022. Oxyomus of Taiwan (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): review of the fauna, a new species and its larva associated by DNA barcoding. Zool Stud 61:80.