Zoological Studies

Vol. 62, 2023

(update: 2023.1.6)

Composition and Dynamics of Hexapod Communities on Yushan Bamboo (Yushania niitakayamensis) in the Subtropical Montane Areas of Taiwan

Tsen Hua1,2, Hui-Yi Li1, Cheng-Lung Tsai1,3, Wing Wei Wang4, Chao-Yuan Lin5, and Wen-Bin Yeh1,*

1Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan. *Correspondence: E-mail: wbyeh@nchu.edu.tw (Yeh).
E-mail: huatsen@mail.npust.edu.tw (Hua); polly_9803@yahoo.com.tw (Li); david10025200@hotmail.com or cltsai.lucanid@gmail.com (Tsai)
2Department of Plant Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
3Department of Biology, National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei 100, Taiwan. E-mail: f3022002@gmail.com (Wang)
5Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan. E-mail: yuanlin@nchu.edu.tw (Lin)

(Received 1 September 2022 / Accepted 3 January 2023 / Published -- 2023)
Communicated by Shen-Horn Yen

Plant communities that colonize high-elevation zones generally have short growing seasons, which leads to specialized adaptations in such zones. In montane areas of Taiwan, Yushan bamboo (YB, Yushania niitakayamensis) is dominant at elevations ranging from 2500 to 3300 m and grows in a grassland-like open habitat. In this study, hexapods were collected from YB bimonthly between 2009 and 2012 by using a sweeping net. The composition of and several bioindices for the hexapods were determined, and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore the dynamics and seasonal distribution of the hexapods. A total of 32,000 individuals belonging to 11 orders and 113 families were collected, with adult individuals being collected more frequently in warmer seasons (from June to October). Of the sampled individuals, 90% belonged to the orders Collembola (42%), Hemiptera (35%), and Hymenoptera (13%). The number of individuals belonging to Hemiptera were stable in all seasons, and the number of hymenopteran wasps was influenced by temperature and exhibited a stable dynamic pattern. The number of individuals belonging to Collembola fluctuated drastically. The multivariate analyses revealed that the collected hexapods could be divided into two major family groups according to survey season (i.e., summer and winter groups). Several families were collected only in summer, but a few were collected only in winter. Eigenvalues obtained from a principal component analysis revealed that the families Chironomidae, Delphacidae, Entomobryidae, Hypogastruridae, Sminthuridae, and Thripidae (all dominant) were the major contributors to the winter group. These families were abundant all year, although some were more abundant during winter. The three dominant orders Collembola, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, each of which has a distinct community structure and dynamic pattern, may have their own adaptive mechanisms in the subtropical regions of Taiwan. Hemiptera individuals, which feed on YB, were most abundant in the adult stage in summer and in the nymphal stage in winter. The abundance of parasitic hymenopteran wasps, which had stable dynamic patterns, was associated with that of their host insects and temperature. The drastic fluctuations in the abundance of Collembola may have been caused by abiotic factors, such as precipitation and microhabitat factors. The early onset of spring and the late onset of winter might also affect the dynamics of the studied hexapods.

Key words: Entomofauna, Biodiversity, Montane Hexapoda, Insecta.

Citation: Hua T, Li HY, Tsai CL, Wang WW, Lin CY, Yeh WB. 2023. Composition and dynamics of hexapod communities on Yushan bamboo (Yushania niitakayamensis) in the subtropical montane areas of Taiwan. Zool Stud 62:09.

Supplementary materials: Table S1Table S2Table S3Table S4Fig. S1Fig. S2Fig. S3Fig. S4Fig. S5