Zoological Studies

Vol. 63, 2024

(update: 2024.3.20)

Deduced Conservation Srategy of the Mcaques in China from the Eolutionary Dvelopment

Haitao Wang1, Huan Zou1, He-Xian Zhang1, Hao Pan1, Jing Wang1, Gaigai Guo1, Rong Hou1, Kang Huang1, Songtao Guo1, Gang He1, Pei Zhang1, He Zhang1,2,*, Baoguo Li1,3,*, and Ruliang Pan1,4,5,*

1Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China. *Correspondence: E-mail: baoguoli@nwu.edu.cn (Li); ruliang.pan@uwa.edu.au (R. Pan); hezhang6455@163.com (H. Zhang)
E-mail: wanghaitao_0709@163.com (H. Wang); 2870953675@qq.com (Zou); zhanghx605838320@163.com(H.X. Zhang); panhao0502@163.com (H. Pan); 810915631@qq.com (J. Wang); 1945273657@qq.com (G. Guo); houronghr@163.com (Hou); huangkang@nwu.edu.cn (Huang); songtaoguo@nwu.edu.cn (S. Guo); hegang@nwu.edu.cn (He); peizhang@nwu.edu.cn (P. Zhang)
2Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology, College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330045, China
3College of Life Science, Yanan University, Yanan 710032
4International Centre of Biodiversity and Primate Conservation Centre, Dali University, Dali, China
5School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009

(Received 12 February 2023 / Accepted 21 February 2024 / Published -- 2024)
Communicated by Sheng-Feng Shen

Understanding how climate, ecological and environmental changes, and anthropogenic activities have driven animals’ development and predicting their prospective distribution profiles are essential to making a tangible conservation strategy. Macaques (Macaca) distributed in China provide an ideal research model for such an effort. We reconstruct their geographic distribution profiles from the last inter-glaciation (LIG, 120,000–140,000 years BP), the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 22,000 years BP), and the present (1970–2000), based on which we deduce their distribution perspective in the 2050s. The results show that their suitable habitats during LIG and LGM were mainly in eastern Southwest, Central, and Coastal China. A noticeable distribution reduction started in LIG and persisted until the current (1970–2000). Their distribution centroid would shift northward to mountainous regions, mainly in Southwest China, where more migration corridors would be available for their prospective development. Also, the results indicate that China’s Protected Area currently does not cover more than 94.00% of macaques’ potential habitats, which is a dismal situation for their conservation. Finally, this study proclaims that the conservation priority of the macaques in the years to come should focus on Southwest China – their future refuge region.

Key words: Macaques’ historical distribution, Climate Changes, Human-induced activities, MaxEnt, Conservation model

Citation: Wang H, Zou H, Zhang HX, Pan H, Wang J, Guo G, Hou R, Huang K, Guo S, He G, Zhang P, Zhang H, Li B, Pan R. 2024. Deduced conservation strategy of the macaques in China from the evolutionary development. Zool Stud 63:15.

Supplementary materials: Fig. S1Fig. S2Fig. S3Fig. S4Fig. S5Fig. S6Table S1Table S2