Zoological Studies

Vol. 63, 2024

(update: 2024.5.2)

Arrangement and Development of Spicules in the Coral-killing Sponge, Terpios hoshinota

Yurika Hirose1, Sen-Lin Tang2, and Hideyuki Yamashiro2,3,*

1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0129. Japan. E-mail: florida2004yrk@gmail.com (Hirose)
2Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan. E-mail: sltang@gate.sinica.edu.tw (Tang)
3Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Sesoko 3422, Motobu-cho Okinawa 905-0227, Japan. E-mail: hyama@lab.u-ryukyu.ac.jp (Yamashiro). Phone +81-90-7381-4041 Fax +81-980-47-4919

(Received 23 January 2024 / Accepted 10 April 2024 / Published -- 2024)
Communicated by Benny K.K. Chan

Terpios hoshinota Rützler & Muzik, 1993 is a poriferan species that competes with corals and is known as a coral-killing sponge. However, limited information is available on its biology, including morphological traits. This study aims to examine the arrangement and development of spicules in various body parts of the sponge including settled larvae. Spicules were found to appear on the second day after settlement and were present in all individuals on the fifth day. The spicules in the thread-like tissue of the growth portion were oriented in the direction of growth, with their pointed tips facing forward to support the elongated pioneer tissue. Furthermore, the spicules in the surface layer of the sponge tissue were perpendicular, with outward-facing tips associated with collagens. The study indicates that the spicules of T. hoshinota were arranged to support both encrusting basal tissue and pioneering tissue for spreading on corals.

Key words: Coral, Cyanobacteriosponge, Defense, Sponge larvae, Structure

Citation: Hirose Y, Tang SL, Yamashiro H. 2024. Arrangement and development of spicules in the coral-killing sponge, Terpios hoshinota. Zool Stud 63:26.